To train your eye, try this color test:
A paper on Chevreul’s Color Theory and Consequences for Artists by art historian George Roque:
This article has more good information about color phenomena:
Color and Shadows
Basics of Colour Vision and technical details:
Colour Constancy and more technical information:
Here is a article on Goethe’s psychology of color which has fascinated artists from the 19th to the 20th century, especially Kandinsky and Turner. Of course, since color is relative, both experientially and culturally variable, these are known now not to be not universal ideas. See what make sense for you or come up with your own theories.
A discussion about color theory and real life experience with color.